The Internet Trust Bubble Amid Rising Concern over Personal Data: WEF Report

The World Economic Forum has released a set of complementary reports, including one written by an OII team, entitled ‘The Internet Trust Bubble: Global Values, Beliefs and Practices’, by William H. Dutton, Ginette Law, Gillian Bolsover, and Soumitra Dutta. Our report is a follow up to our earlier WEF study entitled ‘The New Internet World’. Both are based on global Web-based surveys of Internet users, and conducted by the OII in collaboration with the WEF, comScore, and with support from ictQATAR.

Our survey research was conducted in 2012, prior to the Snowden revelations, so what we found to be a potential risk to trust in the Internet can only be greater than what we found pre-Snowden. That said, there is no certainty that the concerns raised over Snowden will reach the general public, or that Internet users will not adapt to risks to personal data and surveillance in order to enjoy the convenience and other benefits of Internet use. There is clearly a need for continuing research on attitudes, beliefs, and practices in related areas of security, privacy, authenticity and trust in the Internet, but also greater efforts to support public awareness campaigns, such as is a current focus of work in our Global Cyber Security Capacity Center at the Oxford Martin School.

We found strong support for the values and attitudes underpinning freedom of expression on the Internet. Users in the emerging nations of the Internet world are in some respects more supportive of freedom of expression online than are users in the nations of the Old Internet World. In fact, in 2012, users from the nations more recently moving online, those who compose the New Internet World, are more likely to support norms underpinning freedom of expression online than do users from nations of the Old Internet World, who were early to adopt the Internet, as well as reporting higher levels of perceived freedom in expressing themselves on the Internet.

However, there is concern worldwide over the privacy of personal information, but this is not evenly distributed. Users in nations that have more recently embraced the Internet appeared somewhat less aware of the risks and more trusting in their use of the Internet. Moreover, many users around the world indicate that they are not taking measures designed to protect their privacy and security online. In addition, there is evidence of large proportions of the online world lacking trust in the authenticity and appropriateness of information on the Internet, often looking towards the government to address problems in ways that could put values of the Internet at risk, such as freedom of expression. At the same time, there is a surprisingly high proportion of users that take governmental monitoring and surveillance of the Internet for granted, even before the disclosures of Edward Snowden and his claims about US and other governmental surveillance initiatives. These are illustrations of a pattern of attitudes and beliefs that might well signal a looming crisis of trust in the freedom, privacy, security and value of the Internet as a global information and communication resource.

Building on the theme of trust, A. T. Kearney prepared a related WEF report, entitled ‘Rethinking Personal Data: A New Lens for Strengthening Trust’. In many respects, it moves forward to identify steps that could be taken to address growing concerns over trust in the Internet.

The third report was prepared by a team of researchers at Microsoft, who also build on issues of personal data and trust. All are part of the World Economic Forum’s multi-year ‘Rethinking Personal Data’ initiative.

Links to all three reports are below:

http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_InternetTrustBubble_Report2_2014.pdf   

http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_RethinkingPersonalData_TrustandContext_Report_2014.pdf

http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_RethinkingPersonalData_ANewLens_Report_2014.pdf

Coincidentally, I gave a keynote on the ‘Internet trust bubble’ in Shenzhen, China, at the Huawei Strategy and Technology Workshop today, with the release of this report, 13 May 2014. I am doubtful that our data convinced many in the audience that there was reason for concern, as most discussion was rather optimistic about the future of mobile and the Internet, but I do believe there is international recognition of

New Position as Quello Chair at MSU

After 12 great years at Oxford, I am delighted to be joining MSU as their new Quello Professor. Not sure how my former USC Trojan colleagues will react to me joining the Spartans!  The current Director of the Quello Center, Professor Steve Wildman, a recent Chief Economist at the FCC, posted a much appreciated announcement of the appointment. I’ll be joining MSU in August 2014 and look forward to staying in touch with you over this and related blogs in the future. One of my goals will be to put the Internet and Web into the center of a forward strategy for building the Quello Center’s role in the new digital world of communication research, policy and regulation. My work as a co-principal on the Global Cyber Security Capacity Centre will continue at MSU, as will my work on the Fifth Estate, partly through the support of a project on collaboration at the DTU (Danmarks Tekniske Universitet) as well as through support of the Quello Center.  At MSU, I will hold the James H. Quello Chair of Media and Information Policy.

Announcement by MSU http://cas.msu.edu/oxford-university-professor-named-quello-chair/

 

Internet of Things: a social perspective

I have been quite interested in the Internet of Things since participating in a ‘roadmapping’ workshop organized by the TSB SIG on the topic. I chaired a group focused on the social science aspects of the IoT, which led to a working paper that is available online, entitled ‘A Roadmap for Interdisciplinary Research on the Internet of Things: Social Sciences’.

This eventually evolved into published article in Info, an Emerald journal: William Dutton, (2014) “Putting things to work: social and policy challenges for the internet of things”, info, Vol. 16 Iss: 3 Available soon at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=1463-6697&volume=16&issue=3&articleid=17108501&show=pdf

I’ve also spoken about the IoTs in a short video produced by VOX (Voices from Oxford) focused on my edited book with Mark Graham, entitled Society and the Internet (OUP 2014). The interview is conducted by Prof Christine Borgman, Professor and Presidential Chair in Information Studies, UCLA. The interview is primarily about the edited book, with an example drawn from the Internet of Things. You can see the video at: http://www.voicesfromoxford.org/video/society-and-the-internet-of-things/423

 

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Financial Times Opts for Independence from Press Regulation

Hope springs eternal. Wonderful to learn that the FT has opted out of both the new Independent Press Standards Organisation (Ipso), as well as the Parliament-backed Royal Charter system, which threatens to undermine the independence of the press in Britain. The paper is creating its own self-regulatory system through a new ‘editorial complaints commissioner’, according to The Independent (18 April 2014) and PressGazette, see: http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/financial-times-opts-out-ipso-favour-its-own-system-regulation  The FT might continue to play a role in the Fourth Estate if it continues to guard its independence. Hopefully other papers will follow its lead.

Politics and the Internet

Dutton, William H. with the assistance of Elizabeth Dubois (2014) (ed.) Politics and the Internet. London and New York: Routledge. See: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415561501/

Delighted to see the first pre-publication copy of the four volume set on Politics and the Internet, edited by me with the assistance of Elizabeth Dubois. It is within a larger set of books published in the Critical Concepts in Political Science series by Routledge. Designed as a reference for libraries and scholars within this area, eighty four chapters reprint work that is foundational to the study of politics and the Internet, comprising four volumes:

I. Politics in Digital Age – Reshaping Access to Information and People

II. Compaigns and Elections

III. Netizens, Networks and Political Movements

IV. Networked Institutions and Governance

Politics and the Internet

A common complaint of the Internet age is that we have little time to look back, and therefore risk giving inordinate attention to the most recent work. It is certainly the case that the study of politics and the Internet is developing at such a pace that it will be far more difficult to reflect the full range of research over the coming decades. However, this collection is designed to be of value well into the future by capturing key work in this burgeoning and increasingly important field and making it accessible to a growing international body of scholars who can build on its foundations. I hope you suggest this reference for your library.

Identifying centres of cybersecurity research expertise – results to date

We have volunteered to help CDEC find expertise in areas key to its work. One of the first areas we’ve considered is cybersecurity.  Where does expertise lie in cybersecurity research in the UK, but also internationally. We asked six cybersecurity researchers in the UK to indicate the locus of the most important contemporary work. While we would not claim to have done a comprehensive study, we found a good deal of convergence through this reputational review of the field.
The top five sites that these experts identified (not in order of priority) were:

•    Cambridge University’s Security Group in the Computer Laboratory: one of the longest running security programmes in UK universities.
Contact: Ross Anderson at Ross.Anderson@cl.cam.ac.uk

•    Oxford University’s Cyber Security Centre, which brings together relevant Oxford departments, and associated centres beyond Oxford, such as in the Cybersecurity Capacity Building Project.
Contact: sadie.creese@cs.ox.ac.uk

•    Centre for Secure Information Technologies (CSIT) at Queen’s University Belfast, founded in 2008 in the Institute of Electronics, Communications and Information Technology, and claimed to be the UK’s largest university cyber security research lab.
Contact: Professor John McCanny, Principal Investigator info@ecit.qub.ac.uk

•    Royal Holloway’s Information Security Group, University of London
Contact: ISG Administrator isg@rhul.ac.uk

•    UCL’s Academic Centre of Excellence for Cyber Security Research, set up in 2012, by GCHQ in partnership with the Research Councils’ Global Uncertainties Programme (RCUK) and the Department for Business Innovation and Skills (BIS).
Contact: Professor Angela Sasse  a.sasse@cs.ucl.ac.uk

Other UK programmes that were mentioned, but not by multiple experts, were:

•    Bristol Security Centre, University of Bristol
•    Institute for Security Science and Technology, Imperial College London
•    Security Lancaster, Lancaster University
•    Academic Centre of Excellence in Cybersecurity, University of Southampton

All of the above centres have been awarded Centre of Excellence status in cyber security research under the BIS/RCUK/EPSRC scheme. While they were not mentioned by our sample of experts, two other centres are among those awarded Centre of Excellence status in cybersecurity research: Centre for Cybercrime and Computer Security, Newcastle University and the School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham.

In response to more international programmes, all of the nominations by our reviewers identified US programmes as the most significant, including:

•    Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs in the Harvard Kennedy School. This centre has launched a Cyber Security Initiative as part of a project known as Project Minerva, a joint effort of the Department of Defense, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University.

•    CyLab at Carnegie Mellon University, perhaps the largest cyber security group in the US, joining researchers across more than six departments.

•    Cornell University’s Department of Computer Science that lists security as one of the major strengths of the department

•    .Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) at Purdue University

•    The Institute for Security, Technology, and Society (ISTS), Dartmouth

•    Cyber Security Policy and Research Institute (CSPRI) at The George Washington University

•    .Stanford Security Laboratory, Stanford University

•    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) National Security Directorate, Cybersecurity

We hope this list stimulates discussion about where relevant expertise on cyber security for the CDEC lies in the UK and abroad. This represents work in progress, and any feedback on our list to date would be very welcome. If there are centres omitted or where you wish to provide information about specific areas of strengths or contacts, please comment or email.

Thanks to our students Elizabeth Dubois, Gillian Bolsover and Heather Ford, who helped conduct, review and collate this research, and to the experts in the field for their supporting input in this area.

Bill Dutton and Bill Imlah
Oxford

Deliver Us from Vacation Email Replies

This morning’s paper had yet another wonderful complaint by a spouse who has been plagued by a workaholic partner who cannot curtail his email connections with the office. This spouse said her holiday experience had been turned into a “take your family to work” week. OK. That’s funny and I understand. I actually knew a former top manager at an R&D laboratory in the UK who would (really) have his spouse reading and answering email while he drove the car, as described in this anonymous opinion piece in The Independent. It can go over the top.

However, I hope many of these annoyed families realize that they would not be on a beach or in the Alps were it not for email and being able to stay connected to the office. As I have said before, and others have documented in research, the Internet enables people to be where they want to be for face-to-face, inter-personal interaction. Work can go on despite the boss being away on holiday.

Well, not always, and not for most people.

August is almost over, but what a time of a particular type of spam email – the vacation auto-reply. It often goes something like: “Thank you for your email, but I am away relaxing on holiday. If you really want to contact me, email me when I am back.” To someone who is not on holiday, and very likely working hard on behalf of this holidaymaker, this is truly annoying. Personally, I would rather not get a reply, and assume I’ll hear when I hear, than be told that my colleague is having fun, and that I have been wasting my time trying to complete a task that will be stopped in its tracks because someone is on holiday and can’t reply, “Yes, go ahead”, or “No, let’s talk when I am back”. Easy.
I find any auto-reply to be annoying, but if you want advice from one who is regularly tortured by this spam, here are a few tips:

First, act disappointed that you cannot immediately reply. Apologize that you are traveling and do not have access to the Internet for a time, and will get back as soon as possible. You are important, and your message is important. The corollary, is that you should not suggest that you – our holidaymaker – are too important to be bothered by email from anyone, or that you really deserve a holiday, as if the bloke working while you are on holiday does not.

Secondly, don’t activate your vacation auto-rely 2 seconds after 5pm on the Friday of a long holiday weekend. If you really have to have a vacation auto-reply, maybe wait a respectable amount of time before you check out of the real world.

Finally, if you must leave a vacation email, use them to begin drafting your final vacation email for when you pass away. That will get you in the right frame of mind to tell people how you really wish you could respond, but you are so pleased they thought of you in any case.